The French and Indian War was a war between Great Britain and France over control of the Ohio River Valley during the mid 18th century.
The French and Indian War, which took place between 1754-1763, later became a global war when it spread to Europe in 1756, which resulted in the Seven Years War.
The following is a timeline of events of the French and Indian War:
♦ On July 24, 1534, the colony of New France is established by the French in present-day Canada.
♦ On March 4, 1681, King Charles II grants William Penn a royal charter to establish the Province of Pennsylvania.
♦ The War of the League of Augsburg, known in North America as King William’s War, takes place and is considered the first of the French and Indian Wars.
♦ War of the Spanish Succession, known in North America as Queen Anne’s War, takes place and is considered the second of the French and Indian Wars.
♦ On April 11, 1713, Treaty of Utrecht is signed which brings the War of Spanish Succession to an end.
♦ On September 2, 1713, the French claim the land where they will build the town of Louisbourg and the Fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia.
♦ The French establish Fort Saint-Frédéric at Crown Point on Lake Champlain.
♦ The War of Jenkins’ Ear, which later merged into the War of the Austrian Succession, takes place.
♦ The War of the Austrian Succession, known in North America as King George’s War, takes place and is considered the third of the French and Indian Wars.
♦ On October 18, 1748, the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle brings the War of the Austrian Succession to an end.
♦ On May 19, 1749, King George II of England grants the Ohio Company a charter of several hundred thousand acres of land around the forks of the Ohio River.
♦ On June 21, 1749, the British establish the city of Halifax in Nova Scotia.
♦ Celeron de Bienville’s expedition into the Ohio River Valley takes place in the summer.
♦ On June 21, 1752, the French and their Indian allies attack the town of Pickawillany in Ohio and its inhabitants, taking five British traders prisoner and killing Piankashaw chieftain La Demoiselle, aka Memeskia.
♦ In July of 1752, Michel-Ange Duquesne de Menneville arrives as governor of New France.
♦ In December of 1753, Major George Washington arrives at Fort LeBoeuf in Pennsylvania and delivers an ultimatum to French Captain Legardeau de Saint-Pierre to abandon the fort and leave the Ohio River Valley. He rejects it.
♦ On December 16, 1753 Washington leaves Fort LeBoeuf with St. Pierre’s response.
♦ Major George Washington and 160 soldiers from the Virginia Regiment are sent to reinforce Fort Prince George near modern day Pittsburg, Ohio.
♦ On April 16, 1754, Fort Prince George is seized by French soldiers, before Washington can reach it, and is renamed Fort Duquesne.
♦ On May 28, 1754, the Battle of Jumonville Glen, which is the opening battle of the war, takes place near present-day Hopwood, Pennsylvania. French-Canadian commander Joseph Coulon de Jumonville is killed during the battle.
♦ On June 3, 1754, Washington and his troops complete Fort Necessity, at Great Meadows, to defend themselves against French troops enraged by Jumonville’s death.
♦ On June 19, 1754, the Albany Congress begins in Albany, New York.
♦ On July 3, 1754, the Battle of Fort Necessity takes place near present-day Farmington, Pennsylvania.
♦ On July 4, 1754, Washington surrenders Fort Necessity after losing nearly a third of his troops.
♦ In October of 1754, Washington resigns his Virginia command and returns to civilian life.
♦ In March of 1755, George Washington returns to military life after Braddock offers him a spot on his expedition to Fort Duquesne.
♦ In June of 1755, Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil arrives as governor of New France.
♦ In June of 1755, the British seize Acadia (present-day Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island in Canada) from the French.
♦ June 3-16, the Battle of Fort Beausejour takes place near present-day Sackville, New Brunswick.
♦ On June 9, 1755, British Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen captures two French ships, the ‘Alcide’ and ‘Lys’, in a naval battle off the coast of Newfoundland.
♦ On July 9, 1755, the Battle of the Wilderness, aka the Battle of Monongahela and the Battle of Braddock’s Field, takes place in Pennsylvania.
♦ On August 10, 1755, the Expulsion of the Acadians (descendants of French colonists and indigenous people) begins in Canada during which the British forcibly remove and deport the Acadian people from the colony of Acadia, which is present-day Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.
♦ On September 4, 1755, the Battle of Petitcodiac takes place in present-day New Brunswick.
♦ On September 8, 1755, the Battle of Lake George takes place in New York. This is the first important British victory over the French.
♦ On January 16, 1756, Great Britain and Prussia sign the Treaty of Wesminster, which was a treaty of neutrality between Prussia, Great Britain and Hanover that promised to preserve peace in Germany during the duration of the war by preventing the passage of foreign troops through the country.
♦ On March 27, 1756, the Battle of Fort Bull takes place at present-day Rome, New York.
♦ In April in 1756, the Battle of the Trough takes place in present-day West Virginia.
♦ On April 2, 1756, the Battle of Sideling Hill takes place in Pennsylvania. Exact location of the battle is unknown.
♦ On April 18, 1756, the Battle of Great Cacapon takes place in present-day West Virginia.
♦ On May 1, 1756, France and Austria sign the First Treaty of Versailles, which was an alliance between the two countries that promised mutual military support and assistance if either country was attacked by Great Britain or Prussia. Sweden also joined this anti-Prussian alliance.
♦ On May 8, 1756, the Raid on Lunenburg takes place in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.
♦ On May 12, 1756, French commander Louis-Joseph de Montcalm arrives in Quebec.
♦ On May 17, 1756, the Seven Years War begins when Great Britain officially declares war on France.
♦ On May 20, 1756, the Battle of Minorca takes place in present-day Spain.
♦ On June 20, 1756, the Nawab of Bengal, Suraj Ud Dowla, captures Calcutta in India and reportedly confines British prisoners in the “Black Hole of Calcutta.”
♦ On August 10-14, 1756, the Battle of Fort Oswego takes place in present-day Oswego, New York.
♦ On August 29, 1756, Prussia invades Saxony.
♦ On January 21, 1757, the first Battle on Snowshoes takes place near Fort Carillon (now Fort Ticonderoga) in present-day New York.
♦ On February 2, 1757, Austria and Russia form the Austrio-Russian alliance at the Convention of St. Petersburgh.
♦ On March 23, 1757, the Battle of Chandannagar takes place in India.
♦ On May 1, 1757, Austria and France signed the Second Treaty of Versailles, which was an offensive alliance against Prussia.
♦ On June 18, 1757, the Battle of Kolin takes place in present-day Czech Republic.
♦ On June 23, 1757, the Battle of Plassey Grove takes place in India.
♦ On July 23, 1757, the Battle of Sabbath Day Point takes place in New York.
♦ On July 26, 1757, the Battle of Hastenback takes place in Hanover.
♦ On August 3-9, 1757, the Siege of Fort William Henry takes place at present-day Lake George in New York.
♦ On November 12, 1757, the Attack on German Flatts takes place in present-day Herkimer, New York.
♦ On December 1, 1757, British Major General James Abercromby is promoted to Commander in Chief in North America.
♦ On December 8, 1757, the Battle of Bloody Creek takes place near present-day Carleton Corner, Nova Scotia.
♦ On February 28, 1758, the Battle of Caragena takes place in Spain.
♦ On March 13, 1758, the Second Battle on Snowshoes takes place near Lake George in present-day New York.
♦ On April 29, 1758, the Battle of Cuddalore takes place off the coast of India.
♦ On June 2, the French capture Fort St. David in India.
♦ On June 8, 1758, the Siege of Louisbourg begins in Nova Scotia.
♦ On July 8, 1758, the Battle of Fort Ticonderoga, aka the Battle of Fort Carillon, takes place at Fort Carillon on Lake Champlain.
♦ On July 26, 1758, the Siege of Louisbourg ends in Nova Scotia.
♦ On August 26-28, 1758, the Battle of Fort Frontenac takes place in present-day Kingston, Ontario.
♦ On September 14, 1758, the Battle of Fort Duquesne takes place at present-day Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.
♦ On October 12, 1758, the Battle of Fort Ligonier takes place in present-day Ligonier, Pennsylvania.
♦ On October 26, 1758, the Treaty of Easton is signed, in which the Ohio Indians promise to stop fighting on the side of the French and, in exchange, the British promise not to settle the Ohio country. The treaty essentially ends the French and Indian War in Pennsylvania.
♦ On November 25, 1758, Fort Duquesne is captured by the British after French forces abandon it after losing their Indian allies following the Treaty of Easton.
♦ In December of 1758, the Siege of Madras begins in India.
♦ In December of 1758, George Washington resigns his commission in the Virginia regiment.
♦ On January 16-19, 1759, the Invasion of Martinique takes place in the West Indies.
♦ On January 22, 1759, the Invasion of Guadeloupe begins in the West Indies.
♦ On February 17, 1759, the Siege of Madras ends in India.
♦ On March 7, 1759, the final Battle on Snowshoes takes place directly across from Fort Carillon in present-day New York.
♦ On May 1, 1759, the Invasion of Guadeloupe ends after Guadeloupe surrenders to the British.
♦ On July 6-26, 1759, the Battle of Fort Niagra takes place near present-day Youngstown, New York.
♦ On July 24, 1759, the Battle of La Belle-Famille takes place near Fort Niagra in New York.
♦ On July 26-27, 1759, the Battle of Ticonderoga takes place in New York.
♦ On July 31, 1759, the Battle of Beauport takes place near Beauport, Canada.
♦ On August 1, 1759, Battle of Minden takes place in present-day Germany.
♦ On August 12, 1759, Battle of Kundersdorf takes place in present-day Germany.
♦ On August 18-19, 1759, the Battle of Lagos takes place in Portugal.
♦ On September 13, 1759, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, aka the Battle of Quebec City, take places in Quebec City.
♦ On September 18, 1759, the Articles of Capitulation of Quebec are signed.
♦ On October 4, 1759, the St. Francis Raid takes place in Quebec.
♦ In the fall, moderate Cherokee chiefs from Great Tellico, which is located in present-day Tennessee, travel to South Carolina to negotiate with the governor there but are kept as hostages and brought to Fort Prince George in South Carolina.
♦ On February 16, 1760, Cherokee warriors attack Fort Prince George in South Carolina in an attempt to free the Cherokee hostages. British forces thwart the attack and kill the hostages.
♦ On April 28, 1760, the Battle of Sainte-Foy takes place in Quebec.
♦ On May 16, 1760, the Battle of Neuville takes place on the Saint Lawrence River near Nouvelle, France.
♦ In February of 1760, the Siege of Fort Loudon takes place in present-day Tennessee.
♦ On August 9, 1760, the Siege of Fort Loudon ends in present-day Tennessee.
♦ On August 16-24, 1760, the Battle of the Thousand Islands takes place in on the St. Lawrence River near the border of Canada.
♦ On June 28 – July 8, 1760, the Battle of Restigouche, takes place on the Restigouche River in Quebec.
♦ On September 6, 1760, the Siege of Montreal takes place. The French lose the siege. This marks the end of French rule in North America.
♦ On September 8, 1760, Articles of Capitulation of Montreal are signed in the British military camp near Montreal.
♦ On October 16, 1760, the Battle of Kloster Kamp takes place in present-day Germany.
♦ On October 25, 1760, King George II of Great Britain dies.
♦ On June 7, 1761, the Invasion of Dominica takes place.
♦ On August, 15, 1761, France and Spain sign the Family Compact, which was a treaty between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain pledging mutual support in the war effort.
♦ On September 23, 1761, the Cherokee sign a peace treaty with the British, which brings the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759-1761) to an end.
♦ On January 4, 1762, Great Britain declares war on Spain, which marks the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish war.
♦ On January 18, 1762, Spain publishes its treaty with France and declares war on Great Britain.
♦ On May 18, 1762, Portugal allies with Great Britain and declares war on both Spain and France.
♦ On September 15, 1762, the Battle of Signal Hill takes place at St. John’s in Newfoundland.
♦ On January 5, 1762, the Invasion of Martinique begins in the West Indies.
♦ On February 12, 1762, the Invasion of Martinique ends in the West Indies.
♦ On May 5, 1762, Prussia and Russia sign the Treaty of St. Petersburg which ends the fighting between the two countries.
♦ On May 5, 1762, Spain begins its invasion of Portugal.
♦ On June 6, 1762, the Siege of Havana begins in Cuba.
♦ On June 24, 1762, the French capture St. John’s, Newfoundland.
♦ On August 11, 1762, the Siege of Havana ends in Cuba.
♦ On September 18, 1762, the British retake St. John’s, Newfoundland.
♦ On September 24, 1762, the Battle of Manila begins in the Philippines.
♦ On October 6, 1762, the Battle of Manila ends in the Philippines.
♦ On November 24, 1762, Spain’s invasion of Portugal fails.
♦ On February 10, 1763, the French and Indian War ends with signing of the Treaty of Paris.
♦ On May 7, 1763, Pontiac’s War begins, which is a conflict between Great Britain and a loose confederation of Native-American tribes who were unhappy with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the French and Indian War.
♦ On July 25, 1766, Pontiac and the Algonkian chiefs meet at Fort Ontario in New York to sign a final peace treaty, which brings Pontiac’s War to an end.
To learn more about the French and Indian War, check out this article on the best books about the French and Indian War.
Fowler, William M., Jr. Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle for North America, 1754-1763. Walker & Company, 2005.
“As you prepare for Fort Ticonderoga’s Battle on Snowshoes re-enactment: What you may not have known about Bobby and his buddies…” Fort Ticonderoga, 17 Feb. 2015, www.fortticonderoga.org/blog/as-you-prepare-for-fort-ticonderogas-battle-on-snowshoes-re-enactment-what-you-may-not-have-known-about-bobby-and-his-buddies/
“George Washington and the French and Indian War.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, Mount Vernon Ladie’s Association, www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/french-indian-war/washington-and-the-french-indian-war/
“French and Indian War Timeline.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/french-indian-war/french-and-indian-war-timeline/
“French and Indian War.” MRNAUSSBAUM, Nassbaum Education Network, LLC, mrnussbaum.com/french-and-indian-war/
“French and Indian War Timeline.” PBS, WQED Multimedia, 6 Jan. 2009, www.pbs.org/thewarthatmadeamerica/timeline.html
“Timeline of the French and Indian War.” French and Indian War Society, www.frenchandindianwarsociety.org/timeline/